PDF La Création dEntreprise démystifiée en 21 étapes (LArt dEntreprendre) (French Edition)

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La Création d'Entreprise démystifiée en 21 étapes (L'Art d'Entreprendre) L'Art d​'entreprendre: doper votre intelligence entrepreneuriale (French Edition) Jul.
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This research focuses on digital information resources DIR addressed to French-speaking parents in Belgium and Canada, in response to this social problem.


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Results : The discourse of the Belgian DIR prescribes modalities of intervention in the situation of cyberbullying which are proactive ; preventive actions focusing on the promotion of respect for others ; a media education prescribing good uses ; the exercise of a democratic parenting with an authoritarian tendency. The discourse of Canadian DIR prescribes modes of intervention in cyberbullying that focus on the well-being of the child-victim ; preventive actions aimed at understanding the socio-media universe of young people ; media education based on support and open dialogue ; the exercise of a democratic parenting with a permissive tendency.

Our observations are consistent with the findings of surveys showing that parenting in Latin Europe is conducted in a more authoritarian way than in Canada. Contribution : Our research confirms the postulate of the critical discourse analysis theory to which discourses are oriented by common sense knowledge beliefs, norms, values geographically and culturally located.

Clothes and social distinction within middle and upper class families. Abstract Research Framework: In all strata of society, clothing is a privileged instrument of social distinction. In a way that is not necessarily conscious, it allows individuals to make an appearance that gives them - at least in their own eyes - some form of excellence, and to make a difference between them and social groups to which they do not want to be assimilated.

Objectives: The objective of this article is to analyze how this logic of distinction guides children's clothing practices. By focusing on the case of the French middle and upper classes, we wish to show that the choices made by parents when dressing their children are the product of relational tastes and distastes, in response to the tastes of those who occupy different positions in the social space. Methodology: The article is based on a qualitative interview survey conducted in France between and with 26 parents of ten-year-old children from the middle and upper classes.

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Results: After highlighting the existence of a taste for distinction, which leads many parents to buy their children clothes that distinguish them, the text details different forms of distaste with the taste of others: an aversion to certain clothes associated with different fractions of the working classes, on the one hand; a distancing of tastes attributed to other fractions of the middle or upper classes, on the other hand. Conclusions: These analyses indicate that children - very precisely the practices and consumption intended for them - play an important role in building barriers and symbolic hierarchies between classes.

Contribution: While consumption for children is almost never mentioned in La distinction, the article shows the relevance of the theoretical model developed by Pierre Bourdieu to account for this consumption. Beyond the case of clothing alone, it invites us to analyze other childish practices in the light of the proposals put forward in La distinction. Within this diversity appear gay fathers. But choosing gay parenthood is a relatively recent phenomenon that requires confronting a hostile legal and social environment and challenging gender norms.

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Objectives: The objective of this article is to explore representations of kinship and paternity, including whether or not the genetic link is important to gay fathers who have used gestational surrogacy. Methodology: The paper is based on interviews with 36 gay men in couple's who have used surrogacy to become the father of a child or twins of about 4 months of age. Results: Because they are likely aware of the importance of genetic bonds in dominant social representations of parenthood, the interviewed fathers are very careful that their own relatives make no distinction between them.

Some fathers go so far as to refuse to tell others about which father is biologically related to the child. Nevertheless, these dominant representations are not absent, especially at the moment of conception. Indeed, a number of them implanted embryos of each to give themselves a chance to have twins genetically linked to each of the fathers. In the case of a second surrogacy, they often want the second child second twin or future pregnancy to be of the father who has not given his sperm the first time.

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Conclusions: The gathered observations show that the representations of paternity are diversified and combine representations based on genetic ties with representations based more on daily parenthood. Contribution: The article highlights the complexity of paternity representations. These are not just about biogenetic links, but also about elective links. This narrative is given as a story of eviction, particularly in the latter half of the 20th century, and the ubiquitous arrival of motorized traffic ; a phenomenon that has only accelerated over time.

It is a radical separation between a before, which represents a golden age for children where the city revolved around them, and an after were children are represented as being shut in at home, forbidden from playing in the street and connected to the world via their smartphones and tablets. Despite this alarmist discourse, it is important to remember that children and adolescents continue to explore and socialize within their cities regardless of whether they are not or are no longer in the majority.


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  • Methodology : The introductory article is based on a review of work done in the fields of anthropology, history, geography, architecture and urban studies, all of which discuss the relationship between urban spaces and children and adolescents. This analysis is juxtaposed by ongoing projects that ask the opinions of youths to establish a consensus-building approach to urbanism and urban redevelopment in cities, metropolises and megacities.

    Results : By including all age groups children and adolescents as well as the types of spaces that are generally kept separate, the articles presented herein ask us to consider several important aspects including : the presence of youths in urban spaces, the standardization, regulation and gamification of certain public spaces ; the appeal of closed spaces interiors, shopping centres and their appropriation ; the practise of physical activities ; autonomous mobility ; the interest in digital media and familial injunctions to assess the influence of parents and siblings on the relationships that young people have with the city.

    Conclusions : This article focuses on the necessity of taking an intersectional approach that considers a broad range of variables including gender, age and socio-geographical origin, race in particular, to analyze the relationships between children and adolescents and public spaces. Here we reveal the importance of the passage between interior spaces homes, schools, youth homes, recreational centres, etc.

    Contribution: This article takes a look at the societal and anthropological issues that affect the relationship between public spaces and children and teens in over a dozen cities located in Europe, North America, Northern Africa and the Middle East. It identifies paths of exploration and paths of implementation on this topic. Its objective is to enrich the interactionist approach to public behaviour by highlighting its socio-genesis.

    The particular focus of this study is how norms of self-presentation, ways of behaving and perceptions of danger, are taught. Results : Parents appear to provide ambivalent instruction regarding the transmission of interaction and traffic rules as they are often accompanied by a certain disrespect for these same rules by other urbanites. The instructions transmitted to children are partly differentiated depending on the gender of the child as the presence girls in urban public space appears to be more tightly controlled than that of boys.

    A Sociological Survey in the Varied Environments of Montpellier and Strasbourg Research framework: Cycling practices are underpinned by considerable environmental, health and economic challenges. Despite this, teenage girls seem to be cycling far less. Objectives: This article studies the extent to which this is the result of a gendered inequality when it comes to the opportunity to move freely within public spaces.

    Methodology: We conducted a dispositionalist analysis based on observation campaigns direct experimentation and observation and formal semi-directive interviews conducted with 43 boys and 39 girls aged 17 to 18, as well as 26 of their parents, in the varied environments of Montpellier and Strasbourg.

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    Results: The results indicate that adolescence tends to be a period of incorporation and reinforcement of gendered dispositions toward free movement within public spaces and that this period is particularly restrictive for girls. This observation appears to be exactly the opposite however when it comes to boys. Conclusions: By explaining many observable variations within each gender category and including socio-economic and residential backgrounds as well as context, we illustrate that cycling deserves to be analyzed as a distinct practice that is gendered, social and spatial.

    Contribution: By taking a dispositionalist sociological approach, we reveal the re production of gender roles and the re production of inequalities of potential mobility to illustrate that cycling is a fully social fact. While many studies have analyzed physical and sporting activities among young people, and adults, the practices of children remain a blind spot. The experience of children growing up in impoverished areas, however, deserves a specific look, especially regarding their relationship with public space.

    From this perspective, we studied scientific literature that emphasizes the independent mobility and family constraints of girls in particular. Objectives: Our approach questions gendered relationships with public space in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods and the use of bicycles by children between the ages of nine and ten. For two of these groups, these children received specific training from municipal sports educators and from road safety educators.

    The third school served as a control group. Ad hoc questionnaires were sent to each school, before and after the bike learning courses, to study the development of their technical levels, their use of the bicycle in the neighborhoods and around the city, their cycling related relationships with friends and family. Results: The results highlight a clear, gendered, and persistent differentiation, in terms of bike control, technical ease in and out of their neighborhood and the weight of a distinct socialization regarding gender related risks and family relationships.

    Conclusions: For these children, there exists a persistent and specific use of public space when it comes to cycling and this division is essentially related to the gendered relational configuration of working class families.

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    Contribution: This study looks at how cycling is learned and it identifies the precautions taken when promoting cycling among boys and girls in public spaces. The promotion of cycling is essential for the purposes of travel, especially in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods. This reduction has changed the relationship that children have with public spaces. To counter this decline, walking school bus programs such as Trottibus have been implemented to encourage children to walk to school.

    Objectives: These programs have been evaluated in the past, but little research has focused on differentiating the perceptions of parents and children. Methodology: Our methodology relied on a web-based, self-administered survey conducted with parents and their children aged 5 to 11 years before their participation in the Trottibus program or at the very beginning of the program. According to parents, the Trottibus has educational benefits in terms of pedestrian mobility. Children and parents highlighted the social aspects of this program as being an outstanding.

    Conclusions: The results provide a better understanding of children's familiarity with school travel and their perceptions of road safety under various scenarios walking on the sidewalk, crossing the street, playing on the street, etc. Contribution: The accompaniment of children by adults questions how exploring the city through the journey to school can help children to become more independent. If parents are afraid to let their child walk from home to school alone at ages where independent mobility is experienced, children might not acquire the skills required to travel safely and experience public spaces in cities.

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